Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was born in Madhya Pradesh, India. Babasaheb was born on 14 April 1891 in Mahu near Indore in Madhya Pradesh to Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai.
When Ambedkar was born, his father was a Subhedar in the Indian Army and was posted at Indore. Bhimrao Ambedkar was the 14th and last child of his parents. Being the youngest member of his family, he was loved by all. Dr.Br Ambedkar belonged to a Marathi family in Maharashtra and his hometown is Ambawade in Ratnagiri district.
Being of Mahar caste, he was discriminated against socially and economically. Not only that, being a Dalit, he also had to struggle a lot to get a higher education, but he overcame all the difficult circumstances, got higher education, and proved himself against the world.
As Babasaheb’s father was in the Army, he got the privilege of getting an education for his children. But being a Dalit, he had to face caste discrimination even at school. The school chaprashi used to let them drink water from above, if the chaprashi was on holiday, these children would not even get water to drink on that day. Despite enduring all these injustices, Babasaheb became highly educated.
After Babasaheb received his primary education in Dapoli, he entered Elphinstone High School in Mumbai, becoming the first Dalit to receive such education. In 1907 he obtained his matriculation degree. A convocation ceremony was also held on this occasion.
Impressed by the talent of Bhimrao Ambedkar, the teacher Shri Krishnaji Arjun Keluskar gave him the book ‘Buddha Charitra’ written by him as a gift. Later, after getting the fellowship of Sayaji Rao Gaikwad, the king of Baroda, Babasaheb continued his further education. Babasaheb was interested in studies from his childhood and he was a student of smart and sharp intellect so he succeeded in every one of his exams with good marks.
In 1908, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar made history again by admitting Dr. Br Ambedkar to Elphinstone College. He was the first Dalit to enter a college for higher education. He passed the degree examination from Mumbai University in 1912. Due to opposition to learning Sanskrit, he passed in Persian. He graduated from this college with a degree in Economics and Political Science.
Bhimrao Ambedkar was made the Defense Minister by the Baroda State Government, but here too caste discrimination did not leave him and he often had to face humiliation. He did not work here for a long time as he was awarded the Baroda State Scholarship for his innate talent, giving him the opportunity to pursue a higher degree at Columbia University in New York.
He left for America in 1913 to continue his education. In 1915, Ambedkar received his master’s degree in Economics from Col. Columbia University in the United States, along with sociology, history, philosophy, and anthropology. After this he did research on ‘Commerce of Ancient India’. Ambedkar received his Ph.D. in 1916 from Columbia University in the United States.
The subject of his dissertation was ‘Decentralization of Provincial Finance in British India’.After the end of the fellowship, he had to return to India. On his way back to India via Britain, he registered for M.Sc and D.Sc in School of Economics and Political Science and Bar at Law in Law Institute and then returned to India.
On his return to India, he first accepted the responsibility of military officer and financial advisor at the court of the kings at Baroda as per the rules of scholarship. He also served as Secretary of State for Defense. After this Bhimrao Ambedkar (Dr.Br Ambedkar) quit his job as Army Minister and took a job as a private teacher and accountant.
Here he also started a consulting business but here too he was pursued by the attitude of untouchability and his business also came to a standstill due to his social status. Eventually he returned to Mumbai where he was assisted by the Mumbai Government and became Professor of Political Economy at the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai.
In the meantime, he raised money for his further education, and in 1920, he again went to England outside India to continue his education. In 1921 he received a master’s degree from the London School of Economics and Political Science and two years later received his D.Sc.Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar also spent some time studying at the University of Bonn, Germany.
In 1927, he did his D.Sc. in Economics. After studying jurisprudence, he worked as a barrister in the British Bar. On June 8, 1927, he was awarded a doctorate by Columbia University.
On his return to India, Babasaheb decided to fight against caste discrimination, which had caused him many humiliations, disgrace, and hardships in his life. Ambedkar saw how the mentality of untouchability and caste discrimination had spread everywhere.
Ambedkar understood his duty to expel all these things from the country and launched a protest against this. In preparation for the Government of India Act of 1919, Ambedkar told the Southborough Committee that there should be a separate electoral system for the untouchables and other communities. He also proposed reservation for Dalits and lower castes.
In 1927, Dr. Ambedkar worked actively for the eradication of untouchability and the complete abolition of caste discrimination. Instead of resorting to violence, he followed in the footsteps of Mahatma Gandhi and started a full-fledged movement for the rights of Dalits. Not only that, while entering the Kalaram temple in Nashik city of Maharashtra, he took the news of the protest made by pro-Hindu activists and also staged a symbolic demonstration.
In 1935, Ambedkar was appointed as the Principal of the Government Law College. He held this post for 2 years. As a result, Dr. When Ambedkar settled in Mumbai, he built a big house in this place, which had more than 50,000 books in his private library.
B.R.Ambedkar Political Career
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar formed the Independent Labor Party in 1936. Later in 1937, his party won 15 seats in the Central Assembly elections. Ambedkar published his book, The Annihilation of Caste, in which he strongly condemned Hindu conservative leaders and the prevailing caste system in the country. He then published another book, ‘Who were the Shudras?’ In which he described the Dalit class as one.
Later, the Congress and Mahatma Gandhi renamed the Dalit class as Harijans, which led to the backward castes also becoming known as Harijans. But Dr. Naya, who is firm in his resolve and will end untouchability in Indian society forever. Ambedkar did not like the name Harijan is given by Gandhiji and strongly opposed the issue. ” “Untouchables are a neighborhood of our society, and that they are a bit like as ordinary as the other member of a nation,” he said.
Dr. Ambedkar was very worried about his health during 1954.1955. His health was deteriorating due to various ailments like diabetes, blurred vision. He breathed his last on December 6, 1956, at his home in Delhi due to a long illness. Due to his conversion to Buddhism, he was cremated just like that religion. A huge crowd had gathered to pay their last respects and attend the funeral procession.
Author – Rajashree Shirude